Developing interdependent plugins¶
Say you have two Kaleidoscope plugins or, more general, two Arduino libraries
B. Let’s assume
B depends on
A in a sense that
B references symbols (functions/variables) defined in
A. Both libraries define header files
b_header.h that specify their exported symbols.
The following sketch builds as expected.
// my_sketch.ino #include "b_header.h" #include "a_header.h" ...
If the header appear in opposite order the linker will throw undefined symbol errors regarding missing symbols from
// my_sketch.ino #include "a_header.h" #include "b_header.h" ...
The reason for this somewhat unexpected behavior is that the order of libraries’ occurrence in the linker command line is crucial. The linker must see library
B first to determine which symbols it needs to extract from
A. If it encounters
A first, it completely neglects its symbols as there are no references to it at that point.
To be on the safe side and only if the sketch does not reference symbols from
A directly, it is better to include the headers in the following way.
// header_b.h #include "header_a.h" ...
// my_sketch.ino // Do not include a_header.h directly. It is already included by b_header.h. #include "b_header.h" ...
Note: I did no thorough research on how Arduino internally establishes the linker command line, e.g. with respect to a recursive traversal of the include-tree. This means, I am not sure how the link command line order is generated when header files that are included by the main
.ino do include other files that provide definitions of library symbols in different orders. There might be additional pitfalls when header includes are more complex given a larger project.